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Supercapacitor: a new hero under a spotlight

2018-02-05 15:12:25   Read

Until recently, the super capacitor (super capacitor) and short circuit protection tasks in standby power quite ordinary, but the application has been extended to electric / hybrid vehicles, with renewable energy; energy collection, wearable devices and networking play. The supercapacitor market is expected to reach US $11 billion by 2023, because the super capacitor will soon expand the scope of the MEMS micro super capacitor with chip size. The current trend includes hybrid super capacitor / battery hybrid device, which is more like an ideal battery. The goal is to replace the rechargeable battery with super capacitor, making charging fatigue past.

Supercapacitors, super capacitors or "super capacitors" exist the storage capacity between capacitors and batteries. Like batteries, they have the ability of slowly releasing energy. Unlike batteries, supercapacitors can be charged in a few seconds, not as capacity as rechargeable batteries. They can endure almost unlimited charging cycles. Supercapacitors have been mass produced as power storage batteries since 1996. With the technology approaching the energy density of batteries, supercapacitors are ready for rapid growth. The supercapacitor also has a long service life without considering multiple charging cycles.

Supercapacitors have higher energy density than ordinary capacitors, but have lower energy density than batteries. In theory, you can replace the battery with a supercapacitor, but supercapacitor instead of the entire Tesla Model S battery will take too much power.

For electric vehicles, supercapacitors occupy a place in the starting / stopping system, the engine auxiliary system and the charging station. Ultracapacitor can also perform basic functions, such as absorbing high current transients in battery, which can extend battery life, but the cost is higher design complexity and larger space requirement. Although supercapacitors are in use, the battery is the mainstream of electric vehicles in the short term because of the higher storage density. To encourage more electric cars on the market, Tesla has opened battery patents to everyone. Ilon Mask (Elon Musk), the chief executive of Tesla, said it was "the spirit of the open source movement to do the development of electric vehicle technology."

He continued: "technology leadership is not defined by the patent, history has repeatedly proved that the patent is to protect the small competitors, but by the company to attract and motivate the world's most talented engineers we believe open source philosophy used in our patent will strengthen rather than weaken the status of Tesla in in this respect. "

Does RF technology deal with fraud? Figure 1

Figure 1:Maxwell K2 series supercapacitors are a series of supercapacitors suitable for hybrid power systems.

The basic principle of supercapacitor


The standard capacitor accumulates charge in the dielectric material between the two relative electrodes. The supercapacitor cannot store energy in the dielectric. The Ge Corp first used carbon materials to observe physical phenomena in 1957, and supercapacitors store energy. Supercapacitors use high activated carbon surface area, which is related to high capacitance. These double - layer capacitors are also known as supercapacitors or EDLC (electrochemical double layer capacitors). The composite, size and geometry influence the Fala value of the supercapacitor.

The charge is accumulated through the migration of ions within the thin layer of activated carbon. When a voltage is applied to the electrode of a capacitor, the ion migration is intended to reverse the accumulative charge on the electrode (charging cycle). Negatively charged ions move toward the positive pole, and vice versa, producing a positive pole and a negative layer. The loss of the voltage causes the ions to return and move in the opposite direction. This is the discharge part of the cycle. Special materials provide a push: the development of graphene based supercapacitors has the same energy density as Ni MH batteries, but there is no disadvantage of rechargeable batteries. The supercapacitor recharges very fast and is almost unrelentless in the charge cycle.

Micro supercapacitor


The micro supercapacitor is a micro power source residing on the chip. The device based on the planar graphene is expected to reach the power density larger than the electrolytic capacitor. In addition to micro MEMS devices, they are also suitable for flexible micro device applications with multiple flexural micro supercapacitors, which will not affect performance. This is ideal for wearable devices and Internet of things applications. Silk screen printing solid flexible micro supercapacitors are being developed on glass, silicon substrate and paper.

This is of great significance to the market for wearable devices and the Internet of things. Imagine a rotating gear with a supercapacitor and a rotating gear that recharges every supercapacitor when it is energy. Now the device is imagined as a MEMS device inside a chip. The current sensors used for energy collection are limited by the battery's charging cycle life and slow charging time. The supercapacitor has a fast charging time, but it still doesn't have a lot of energy storage capacity, so the battery is necessary. An application that can benefit from it is an instant charging tool that is used in the middle of this tool, and frequent insertion / docking is not a problem.

application


Today's hybrid cars close the engine completely at the stop and start from the supercapacitor. Supercapacitors are traditionally used for the use of energy when suddenly exploding energy or outbursts.

The supercapacitor can be used as a standby power at power outage to achieve the correct turn off order. Smart phones use super battery backup batteries, real-time clocks and camera flash


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